- Posit that the institution of education functions as an adaptive level group as characterized by Wilson's multi-level selection theory.
- Model the tension (boundary points / attractors) which occurs with between-group selection (group) and within-group selection (individual). Weak between-group dominance produces the complexity and dynamics of education reform resistance
- Interpretation of this modelling can be done within a functionalist paradigm or within a non-functionalist paradigm.
- A functionalist interpretation investigates what drives motion to the two complexly competing attractors. It also investigates possible attractor descriptions. It assumes a reductionist paradigm/philosophy.
- A non-functionalist interpretation investigates nesting among groupings and competition between groups. It assumes a process philosophy/paradigm.
One feature that comes out of this model is stochastic complexity characterized by cycling between the group state and the individual state. Sigmunds (2001) Tides of Tolerance model is a good fit. This model shows that minor individual preference for tolerance causes a slow but steady rise of tolerance in a modelled population followed by a rapid phase change to intolerance. Behaviour is cyclical.